The Graduates


Adam Carl


Andrew S.: You're tuned in to 90.7 FM KALX Berkeley. I'm your host, Andrew Saintsing, and this is The Graduates, the interview talk show where we speak to UC Berkeley graduate students about their work here on campus and around the world. Today, I'm joined by Adam Carl of the Scandinavian Department.

How are you doing today, Adam?

Adam Carl: I'm doing great. How are you doing?

Andrew S.: Doing pretty well. So, Adam, I brought you on today, because I saw that you are interested in Norse mythology. I guess I'd just like to know more about how you came to Norse mythology and what you're doing here on campus with it.

Adam Carl: Yeah, that's a really good question, and that's the first thing that people always ask me. "Why are you in the Scandinavian Department? Are you Scandinavian?" And I'm not, but I think I have to go with Lord of the Rings, The Hobbit and The Fellowship of the Ring, into The Two Towers. My family's not terribly religious, but those are the closest things we have to holy books, and my mom can attest to this. We had the extended editions of everything, and now we have it of The Hobbit too. We'd read all the books and we're watch all the movies every Christmas.

Andrew S.: In a day?

Adam Carl: Well, not in a day.

Andrew S.: Okay.

Adam Carl: But in the course of December, whenever you have time. I owe it to Tolkien, and he was a professor too.

Andrew S.: What was it ... He started The Hobbit, because he was grading somebody's paper and just wrote the first sentence, and then that was how the first book was born? Is that right?

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: Is that the story? Yeah.

Adam Carl: That's the folklore, yeah.

Andrew S.: Yeah.

Adam Carl: I guess I wanted to be Tolkien. I wanted to study Old Norse. If you listen to Rohirrim, Viggo Mortensen, when he's playing Aragorn in The Two Towers, will say a couple lines in Old English, and all Tolkien did was rebrand that Old English into "Rohirrim." Air quotes there, and it's the same language. You can hear the influence.

Andrew S.: Have you written anything like Tolkien?

Adam Carl: No, but a lot of people in my program are. He wrote it very late, so maybe I will too.

Andrew S.: Right. You have to wait for the inspiration.

Adam Carl: Exactly, for that one really bad paper. Now I'm here, I'm studying Old Norse, which is very close to modern Icelandic. It's a lot of fun. It's the language of the Vikings.

Andrew S.: Old Norse wasn't written in Latin script, right? Did you have to learn the Runic alphabet?

Adam Carl: Here's the dirty secret. I haven't learned runes. I'm the only person in the department who still hasn't. I can get by if I have the transliteration. I know what they do, but I haven't memorized it.

Andrew S.: How do you get by with it?

Adam Carl: Well, because they did write in Latin script.

Andrew S.: I feel like they saw the Latin script after Christianization-

Adam Carl: That's true.

Andrew S.: ... of Scandinavia?

Adam Carl: Yep.

Andrew S.: They wrote in runes all before that time?

Adam Carl: Yep.

Andrew S.: You basically just read what was written after Christianization.

Adam Carl: Exactly, yeah. There are archeologists who will study the runes and will go out into the field and start digging stuff up. Most of that stuff is in a museum by now, because Scandinavia pays for that sort of research. Everything's pretty much locked away. We already know about it. There aren't a whole lot of new discoveries to come out. That is starting to change with other technology that's coming out, but if you look at the Runic scripts, it has a lot of cross marks and a lot of vertical slashes, and you can tell that this alphabet is meant to be carved into things, whether it's wood or stone.

Some people even think that there were clay tablets that you could Etch A Sketch away and then rewrite, so you could write, "We need milk," in runes and then erase it the next day. It was a carving alphabet. And then when Christianity came through ... In Iceland, it's a really nice, easy date. We just round to about 1000 AD. After that happened, people started writing not just in Latin, but in the vernacular, in Old Norse, and they started writing down things that their grandparents were telling them, or their parents.

These are the sagas or some of the folk tales that we have coming out of the Medieval North. It's really a whole lot of nostalgia, but it's reliable. This is where the folklore part of my research comes in. We can trust what people tell us, maybe not 100% accurately, but people don't get things horribly wrong.

Andrew S.: This is post-Christianization, so these are Christian people.

Adam Carl: Yeah, Christian people writing about their Pagan ancestors.

Andrew S.: I assume there's some bias and some change to some of these stories, right?

Adam Carl: Totally, but not as much as you'd think, and typically only in areas of religious worship or ritual. Certain things will be made more demonic from a Christian perspective than they probably actually were, but we do have some really reliable records. We have a book called Landnoma Bok, the "land-taking book," where people were settling Iceland. There weren't any natives there. It's not like there was an indigenous population that got colonized. It's one of the few cases in the history of humanity where nobody was on the island when new people arrived. The institutional memory, the oral history, the stories that people were telling, it was so accurate that they remembered who their grandfather was, where the person landed, and how the whole farm developed from there. We have records going back 200 years before writing.

Andrew S.: Are Icelandic people just notoriously factual?

Adam Carl: That is the stereotype even in the Middle Ages. They're known as the record keepers, repository of ancient knowledge, if you will. There were embellishments, but people, for a really long time, discounted two sagas that we have that say that a guy named Erik the Red and Leif Erikson, his son, went to a really weird place that they called Vinland. It was past Greenland. Historians for a really long time said, "Oh no, that's a legendary place. That doesn't exist." And then we found Viking ruins in Newfoundland, in pretty much the exact place that the sagas tell us where they would be. Discount the trolls, take out the dragons, there's always a little bit of truth underneath.

Andrew S.: Have you read all the sagas?

Adam Carl: All the popular ones, I'm going to say.

Andrew S.: Okay.

Adam Carl: Some of the unpopular ones. The largest amount of non-Latin stuff that we have coming out of Medieval Europe is in Old Norse. There are a couple of reasons why we think that might be. A lot of it has to do with nostalgia, worrying about what your Pagan ancestors were doing. Were they in Hell? Were they in Heaven? They didn't convert. They needed to work that out and say, "Oh no, they were noble Pagans. They were following Christ. They just didn't know his name." That sort of stuff. There's a lot of nostalgia on the one hand, but also having these redemption narratives for their ancestors. You can't trust that as much.

Andrew S.: That's interesting, that people in Iceland wanted to make it look like their ancestors were following Christ, even though they didn't know who Christ was. I've always noticed that there's a lot of parallels in Norse mythology stories between their stories and Christian stories. Like Odin hangs himself on a tree for three days. Do you think those stories are the product of people trying to reimagine Norse mythology in a more Christian light? Do you think a lot of these Norse myths are altered in that way?

Adam Carl: I don't know if they're altered in that way, but I do think you're on to something there, where you can imagine the new convert talking to someone who hasn't converted yet. Let's say right around 999 in Iceland, and they're talking about which God is better. Are you going to pick Christ or are you going to pick Odin? The Odin guy goes, "Hey, my God hung on a tree and gave us all this runic knowledge, went into a trance state, saw the afterlife, came back and gifted this to us." And you can one up that by saying, "Oh yeah? My God Christ died for us and came back to life."

Andrew S.: You're saying that the Odin story of hanging on a tree arose completely likely independently of the Christian story?

Adam Carl: Yeah, that could be. I think that's the easiest explanation, if we're using Occam's Razor. But the reason that that one got preserved and not a whole bunch of other stories about him, that's because there was comparison to Christianity.

Andrew S.: I'm really interested in what you think about modern interpretations of Norse mythology. Does Thor of Marvel Comics at all look like Thor of purely Scandinavian mythology?

Adam Carl: No, and I'm fine with that.

Andrew S.: Yeah?

Adam Carl: That's how I'm going to answer that. And I'll say why no, and then I'll say why I'm fine with it later. Thor, in the mythology as we're given him in both the Prose Edda and the Poetic Edda, should have red hair. He should-

Andrew S.: Is that your ...

Adam Carl: Yeah, he should be ginger. That's baseline. Similarly, Loki should be very fair and blonde. He's a smooth talker. He's not the devious, jet black, slicked back hair. He's not a greaser. They're doing, I would argue, a little bit more of a Christ/Satan dynamic there, or the good and the evil, the light and the dark, and that's fine. The other thing is that Thor, in the poetry, is kind of an idiot.

Andrew S.: I've noticed that. He just runs around with his hammer, right? Just swinging at stuff.

Adam Carl: Yeah. Whether he should or not, he's going to go and smack something.

Andrew S.: That's interesting, that this would be a God. Do you think the Norse or Scandinavian people were actually worshiping this God, or they had a sense of humor about him, or ...?

Adam Carl: That could be true, because people have a sense of humor about their own religion now. Depending on which direction that humor goes, that depends on the person. Yeah, we have a lot of archeological evidence that people were worshiping Thor. We actually have a couple prayers that might be post-Christian, so there's some syncretic tradition going on there. John Lindow has a whole article, he's from Berkeley, just retired, about maybe some pleas to Thor for help.

Yeah, we have ... This is a fun story. We have, in Denmark, an archeological find with three different molds for, I think it's iron. You pour in the molten iron and you get jewelry out, and there's one that looks exactly like Mjölnir, like Thor's hammer, and on the far right side ... Mjölnir's on the far left side. On the far right side, there's a cross. In between, there's a design that could go either way. It looks kind of like a hammer, kind of like a cross, and as far as we can tell, Christianity and Paganism co-existed. At least enough for the smith to make money off of both sides, right?

Andrew S.: Like in Ireland or ...

Adam Carl: Yeah, exactly. Exactly.

Andrew S.: I guess people did worship Thor, so then why does he seem like such a, I guess, terrible person?

Adam Carl: Well, think about it this way. You've got lots of Gods to choose from. Your own God doesn't have to do everything.

Andrew S.: Right?

Adam Carl: Thor can be an idiot, because you have Odin to do all the poetry and all the scheming behind the scenes.

Andrew S.: Right.

Adam Carl: Thor can really just be the guy who goes out and hits stuff. We also have some sense from the archeological finds, like the hammer, the cast of the hammer, that suggest that Thor was more a man of the people. He was the folk hero, the rural hero. If you're a farmer, you're going to worship Thor. And if you're in the king's court, or if you're part of the jarldom, the upper class, the aristocratic side of things, you're probably going to worship Odin. There seemed to be a socioeconomic difference between the two, and you might imagine that if the upper class were the ones writing the books later, they'd poke fun at the peasants' Gods, right?

Andrew S.: Right. That's fair.

Adam Carl: Like, "Ha ha, Thor, that idiot. Doesn't know court poetry. Ha ha." Yeah.

Andrew S.: Actually, the newest Thor movie had an interesting take. It's about Thor seeing some of the more problematic moments of Odin's past, which is interesting to me, because Odin has some sketchy moments, right?

Adam Carl: He's a total pervert. To even say that, there's a translation of an insult that translates to, "Pervert," and it's spot on.

Andrew S.: Interesting. Wait, so someone was insulting Odin?

Adam Carl: Yeah, it's Loki, because of course it is. Yeah.

Andrew S.: Another thing that I've noticed, right? Thor is running around just smashing things with his hammer. He's specifically smashing a certain group, the enemies of the Gods, which actually come off like not totally bad guys all the time, right?

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: You sympathize with them in a lot of cases.

Adam Carl: I don't know if the Medieval audience would have, but I think-

Andrew S.: Right, yeah.

Adam Carl: We totally can see that there's some colonial stuff going on there.

Andrew S.: We have interpretations of these stories. Do you think these are completely different from how Medieval audiences would've interpreted the stories they're telling?

Adam Carl: I think they've got to be.

Andrew S.: Yeah?

Adam Carl: If we're going to be really good historians, everything has a context, and this is the school of thought that came out of Berkeley, so toeing the party line here. You can't read a text in isolation. You have to know who wrote it. You have to know what the target audience was, what the major political things were. If you take the song, "War, huh, what is it good for," and you apply that to any war, it starts to lose some of that timeliness. It might pick up different kinds of timeliness and it might have different impacts, but it's always going to be pointing backwards towards Vietnam, calling on that rhetoric for it.

I think, and this is where I can segue into that, I think it's okay that Marvel's doing its own thing. I think it's doing it really well, because we have to be aware of the thousand year history between when the Vikings stopped worshiping the Pagan Gods, and what as human beings who are alive today have to deal with. There's a history that they didn't know about that we do.

Andrew S.: Do you study new interpretations of Thor? Does that factor in at all? Do you study current retellings?

Adam Carl: Yeah, totally.

Andrew S.: You're trying to parse out what's the modern influence? What's the Medieval portion of it? What's Christian influence?

Adam Carl: Yeah, to some degree.

Andrew S.: Yeah? You're ...

Adam Carl: You can't really separate things out, because then you're ignoring parts of the work, but you can identify certain things that are stylistically in line with the Medieval, and so, just like in academia, you can always tack an -ism on to anything. We call this Medievalism, so it's not Medieval, but it's trying to be like the Medieval. Game of Thrones has a very particular Medievalism. It's dark, gritty. It's plague ridden, rape everywhere terribleness, and it's just throwing all of life's terrible things at you, and that's not what the Middle Ages were like. People lived. People are people. They're decent no matter what, and they do some terrible things sometimes.

But then you have the flip side, like Lord of the Rings, to bring it full circle here. Which is totally invested in the escapist fantasy, the idea that it was a simpler and better time. You don't have industrialization. You don't have neo-Nazi groups running around, and those are both types of Medievalism. You can start identifying who's picking up what, what they're going to do with it. It keeps you from being that person in the movie theater like, "Thor didn't do that!" That's not the point.

Andrew S.: We talk about the colonial element of these stories, where Thor is running around just slaughtering a group of people, basically.

Adam Carl: Right, I shouldn't be laughing at that. Sorry.

Andrew S.: Right, yeah.

Adam Carl: It's a fantasy world. It's giants. I prefer trolls as the translation, but ...

Andrew S.: Right. Should we read them as people? Should we find this colonial element, or should we read, "The Gods are there to protect the people from elements of nature?"

Adam Carl: Right, right. I have two thoughts on that. One is aimed at how you should treat the Medieval works, and the other's aimed at how we should retell them. I don't think it makes any sense to yell at people who are dead for a thousand years and say, "You should've known better. You should've known what colonialism could've done. You should've known what gender politics should be like. You should've had egalitarian freedom." We can't do that. It's a totally different time. These ideas weren't in place. The events that led to our ideas of these concepts didn't happen.

On the one hand, I don't find that productive. And this is what I tell my undergrad students too, because I tend to teach courses on Vikings and gender or Vikings and Orientalism. That's a cool intersection there.

Andrew S.: Interesting, yeah.

Adam Carl: Because if you're centered in Rome and you're looking North, there are a bunch of weird Pagans who kind of look like they have civilization. It looks an awful lot like how Asia's treated today, so it works. But I do find it productive to read the Medieval text to get a new sense, like a human experiment. What did they do? What were the contexts? Is there anything we can learn from that? And one of the things that's really productive is they had multiple genders. It's a spectrum, and you don't think of that when you think of big, manly, hyper-masculine Vikings, right?

Andrew S.: Right.

Adam Carl: That's our conception of them, but there was a sliding scale. You could be hyper-masculine and own a farm, and then go out and wield weapons. And you could be a woman and do that. You could put on chain mail. You could get out a sword. You could go kill people as though you were a man. You could own property, but that meant that you couldn't deal with any of the feminine side of things.

Andrew S.: Interesting.

Adam Carl: There was a middle ground, where you could practice magic, and magic is very feminine gendered. You're not feminine or masculine if you're moving from one end of the spectrum to the other. You can't quite own property, but you can't quite be in the women's quarters. But you do have a ritual magical realm, and then you have the feminine, which is producing home-spun cloth, sequestered but in charge of the domestic sphere. Women had the keys to the whole house, if they were upper class women. And people can move along these lines pretty freely.

And each came with benefits and downsides, but it wasn't a utopia, because you did want to be hyper-masculine. That's how you had the most political and economic agency, but for religious stuff, you definitely wanted to be on the more feminine side of things. It's not really material benefit, and that's our criticism that we could have, but if I'm talking to, let's say, my family members about non-binary or about transgender people, like, "This is totally unnatural. There are two genders, two sexes," I can point to these texts and say, "Well, the Vikings didn't see it that way." If anyone would have, they would have, right?

Andrew S.: Yeah.

Adam Carl: As a human experiment, we can point to it and say, "Things that we know of didn't have to be this way."

Andrew S.: There were multiple categories. There wasn't just a binary, but you're saying you had to fall into one of the categories still?

Adam Carl: Right, right. Society is still going to put its constraints on you. Carol Clover, also from Berkeley, wrote a whole big long article about this. She made her career out of that article. She's also retired now, unfortunately, but she's still around. She has an office.

Andrew S.: Odin and Loki, in the myths, I guess I would say Odin comes up as hyper-masculine, right? He's the Allfather. He's in charge of everything. He's about as high as you can get.

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: But he's also practicing magic, right?

Adam Carl: Exactly.

Andrew S.: He occupies two categories, right?

Adam Carl: I'm so glad that you've read this stuff, because this is nice. Yeah, and because he's the head of the Pantheon, he can get away with it. He has the best of both worlds. If you're a woman and you want to compete with Odin, you're going to lose. If you're a man and you want to compete with Odin, you're going to lose. He just wins at everything, whether fairly or unfairly, that's beside the point. He's going to win. It's just where that creepy pervert side comes in, because he has his way with everybody, whether it's consensual or not.

On the flip side, and I think this is where you're heading, right? Loki?

Andrew S.: Right, there's the whole myth where he basically mothers Odin's horse, right?

Adam Carl: Which is awesome. Yeah.

Andrew S.: Yeah.

Adam Carl: Neo-Nazis don't talk about that part. Yeah. He not only shape shifts into an animal. He shape shifts genders and that's not the weird part, right? He is now female sexed enough to give birth, and then reverts back to his human male form, and then has children, sires children as a man. He's got the worst of both worlds in some ways, because all of his children are monsters.

Andrew S.: Interesting.

Adam Carl: But it's not because he goes back and forth on the spectrum, because Odin does that too. There's a positive end and there's a negative end to this, and it's completely agnostic to that spectrum.

Andrew S.: Why does Loki get the short end of the stick?

Adam Carl: He's half-giant.

Andrew S.: Oh, I see.

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: He can't really be one of the Gods.

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: All right.

Adam Carl: He and Odin apparently took a blood bond, so they're technically blood brothers. This is where Marvel gets it wrong.

Andrew S.: Right, yeah. I've always thought, "They're not ... He's not Thor's brother."

Adam Carl: We joke sometimes in the department that we need a stamp that says, "Marvel's not myth." Stamp, for the exams. But yeah, Loki keeps trying to get into the in crowd. He tries to be one of the Æsir, one of the Gods, and they never quite accept him.

Andrew S.: Is that what drives him to end the world?

Adam Carl: Yeah, a little bit. And it would, right?

Andrew S.: Yeah. Wow, just a little nicety and they would've all survived.

Adam Carl: Right, right.

Andrew S.: Cool. We've been talking all about these Norse mythologies and Medieval history, but before we started this interview, you actually told me that this isn't even the main focus of your dissertation anymore, which I was a little surprised to hear. What actually is your dissertation about now?

Adam Carl: Well, that's still in the works. I should have it figured out by now, but this is a pretty common trajectory. People get hooked by the Medieval and the Vikings, and then our graduate students tend to find cool stuff in the modern period, and that's true for me too. One of my favorite authors, everybody should go out and read her. Her name is Selma Lagerlöf. She was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize in Literature. She's Swedish, and she was pushing back up against all these realist novels that I really hate. I don't really need to see what flowers are in the jug of the dining room table of this bourgeois home. I don't care. Give me the trolls, and that's exactly what Selma Lagerlöf does.

She goes back, she reads all these Icelandic sagas, the myths, and she starts pulling on those and retelling them in turn-of-the-century 1900s. She was known as the great Swedish storyteller, so she's really captured my imagination now.

Andrew S.: She's writing novels or ...?

Adam Carl: Yeah, novels and short stories. Not really poetry. She tried that and didn't really get published.

Andrew S.: Are there a collection of failed poems?

Adam Carl: They're in some of her letters.

Andrew S.: Okay.

Adam Carl: Yeah, I just got the chance to read some of them.

Andrew S.: Were they ... They weren't that great or ...?

Adam Carl: I mean, I kind of love her, so ...

Andrew S.: Oh, okay. So-

Adam Carl: They should not have been the first thing she published, that's true.

Andrew S.: Okay. From what I somewhat know about Scandinavian literature, Ibsen, right?

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: She's rebelling against that whole tradition?

Adam Carl: Yeah. They're contemporaries, but because she was a woman, she got into writing a little bit later. She had a career as a schoolteacher, and Ibsen was already writing his plays and his novels and stuff like that, long before Selma Lagerlöf got her first book published. But they're contemporaries, and that's the realism I'm talking about.

Andrew S.: Right. Is she Scandinavian Tolkien? Do people know her that well?

Adam Carl: Definitely in Swedish, because she's on the currency.

Andrew S.: Oh, really?

Adam Carl: I forget which bill she's on, but yeah.

Andrew S.: Wait.

Adam Carl: And she has a fantastic hat. You should look it up some time.

Andrew S.: Interesting.

Adam Carl: Yeah, so she's celebrated still to this day, and people all across the world probably know Nils Holgersson's Wonderful Adventures through Sweden. It's a little tiny kid, who gets shrunk down to the size of an elf, and gets on the back of a goose and flies all throughout Sweden. I didn't know this was internationally known until some of my international students from Asia were in my class and were like, "Oh, I read this as a kid." What?

Andrew S.: What? Cool.

Adam Carl: But it's a really good fairy tale.

Andrew S.: Okay, I have to look into this. Selma Lagerlöf.

Adam Carl: Yeah, L-A-G-E-R-L, and an O umlaut, F.

Andrew S.: What exactly do you do with the works? Do you read this as a person who's studying literature, or do you read it as a person who's studying history?

Adam Carl: A little bit of both.

Andrew S.: Okay.

Adam Carl: Yeah. I think our modernists tend to be more on the literature side of things. But I do have my folklore background from Ohio State, and that has trained me to treat literature as history. The thing that folklorists always do is we treat text like it's an object and objects like it's a text. Archeologists hate us for that, and literature people hate us for that, but it's productive. I like it.

I like looking through Selma Lagerlöf's stuff, all of the things that she's ever written, trying to pull out things in her history, things in her life, and one of the things that I noticed for a seminar paper I just wrote was that she has a whole outline for how to teach kids. She's mainly writing for kids, and you can read her novels and her short stories as a pedagogical portfolio. "Here's how kids learn. Here's how they don't. These are all the ways in which teachers are failing their kids right now, and I'm going to do better through fiction."

Andrew S.: Cool.

Adam Carl: And that's awesome too. Learning can be fun. That was her whole shtick before we even had words for that.

Andrew S.: You have to know what is going on in Swedish education for that?

Adam Carl: Yeah.

Andrew S.: How do you even tackle that?

Adam Carl: Yeah, that's a good question. That's where the history comes in, because you can go to newspapers. You can look at editorials, just like you can today, and you can get the local school issues that people are talking about. Those are all digitized, because Scandinavia has boatloads of government money to archive the stuff and then research it. One thing that our country should probably work on. Norway has all the oil money, so anything you ever want from Norway is probably recorded and digitized at this point. Sweden's second behind them, so you can go there. Or a lot of her letters were preserved, so I went through and I read those. She outlines what she's trying to do, even down to certain passages as she's drafting. She's like, "That didn't work. Maybe this will."

Andrew S.: Who's she writing these letters to?

Adam Carl: Everyone. It was the email of the day or text messaging.

Andrew S.: She's just letting people know.

Adam Carl: And I should also mention, because it's important, she's probably the first lesbian writer to win a Nobel Prize as well.

Andrew S.: Interesting. Did people know? What she out?

Adam Carl: It was a lot easier to be a lesbian than a gay person at that time, because you could just be two elderly women living together.

Andrew S.: Right.

Adam Carl: That happens.

Andrew S.: Okay, so it wasn't a topic of discussion.

Adam Carl: Yeah, but the thing that surprised me was, in her letters to everybody, she would talk about Miss Elkan, and that was her girlfriend. She'd just mention that casually, like, "Oh, they're going to Italy this month." Or, "Oh, they're visiting Palestine."

Andrew S.: Cool.

Adam Carl: So it seems like people knew. They just assumed they were really good friends. They didn't know they were really good friends.

Andrew S.: Wait, when did she live?

Adam Carl: Oh boy, I should have this memorized. Normally I have my reading list, and I can just glance down and look at it. I think she was born in 1855 or maybe 1860, somewhere in there. And Swedish authors tend to live a really long time, so she died in 1930-something, but she lived through World War I and was a strong advocate for pacifism all throughout it.

Andrew S.: Did Sweden fight in World War I?

Adam Carl: No, no. It wasn't for humanitarian reasons really. They got beaten up by Russia. They didn't really have a military to fight with at that point.

Andrew S.: Everyone was perfectly fine with pacifism in Sweden.

Adam Carl: Yeah, exactly.

Andrew S.: There any other myths you want to talk about? You ever feel like you read all these Norse myths, and then you want to start talking to somebody, and then you just sense, "Oh, they're not that into it." So you just feel like, "Ah, all right?"

Adam Carl: I feel like I have the opposite problem, where I'm just so excited that somebody knows them that I can't help myself from talking about it. And I think too it's different, because I have the whole program behind me, where people are like, "What? You can study that?" And I think there's a hook there in a way that, if you're just interested in it, people are like, "Oh yeah, well that's your interest," right?

Andrew S.: Yeah.

Adam Carl: It's not like, "That's a career option?"

Andrew S.: Right. How did you say, "I'm going to study Norse mythology for a career?"

Adam Carl: Well, I was really lucky. My mom studied Medieval literature in college at Ohio State and graduated with an English major, so she was totally sympathetic to the whole thing. And my dad was an electrical engineer and was pretty up front about the fact that he did that for monetary reasons. He could get a career in that. Still hear undergrads telling me that today. And then hated it so much that he switched to be a microbiologist.

Andrew S.: Interesting.

Adam Carl: And that was always his dream was to help people and study medicine and health, so I think he was pretty used to the idea that you have to do what you love. You can't just follow the money. And I got really lucky in that respect. I know a lot of Berkeley students don't have that luxury of, if not support, just ambivalence about career options, but I do think that that's selling not only the PhD in general but the humanities short, because we gain so many skills. I'm teaching. I've taught, I guess what, four years now? Pretty much autonomously.

I can choose what kind of reading and composition course I teach. I have to hit certain milestones there. I'm about to teach an elective where I don't really have any course goal. It's just teaching the culture and the literature however I feel like. And those are really good public speaking skills. That's classroom management that totally would transfer to a workplace. I'm seeing how university administration works. I'm getting language skills. There's a lot of good reasons to go into a graduate program that are not just for the study of the thing. It just so happens I'm studying Vikings. Not bad.

Andrew S.: It's pretty cool. Pretty cool way to spend your time.

Adam Carl: Yeah, and I know that a lot of people worry there's beyond academia here, and people trying to teach us how to be professional. And I think a lot of that has to do with the background of some students coming in, if they're not from working class backgrounds, professionalization's a really good idea.

Andrew S.: Right.

Adam Carl: You can't show up in a hoodie to every workplace. Maybe in the Bay Area, but even then. That is important, but it's not like we're divorced. It's not like we are the ivory tower. We don't have to be. If we see ourselves that way, yeah, we're going to stay that way and not be marketable, but we're learning a lot of things that are applicable.

Andrew S.: You're tuned in to 90.7 FM KALX Berkeley, and this is The Graduates. I'm your host, Andrew Saintsing, joined by Adam Carl of the Scandinavian Department.

Well, it's been really great to have you here. Thank you so much for agreeing to come in and talk about your studies and your plans for the future. Thanks so much.

Adam Carl: Thank you for all of your really specific questions and getting past some of those content related things into the transmission. I really appreciate that. You brought a good amount of knowledge that I'm not used to, so thank you.

Andrew S.: No, it was a lot of fun. I really enjoy talking mythologies of any kind and seeing more of their context in the world.

Adam Carl: Yeah, well thank you for having this kind of podcast, so that people, not just in Berkeley, but my family members out in Ohio or in Florida, they can listen. I really appreciate that.

Andrew S.: Yeah.

More Episodes


Kelly Ziemer

Keywords: self-transcendence, self-love, positive emotions, therapy, intervention, depressionAndrew Saintsing: Hi, you’re tuned into 90.7 FM KALX Berkeley. I'm AndrewSaintsing, and this is The Graduates, the interview talk show where we speak to UC Berkeley graduate students about their work here on campus and around the world. Today I'm joined by KellyZiemerfrom the School of Social Welfare. Welcome to the show, Kelly.Kelly Ziemer: Oh, thanks for having me, Andrew.Saintsing: It's so great to have you here.Ziemer: Thank you. Fun to geek out about research always.Saintsing: Nice, that's what we're all about on this show.Ziemer: Yes.Saintsing: So, you study positive emotions, right?Ziemer: Yes, I think specifically positive emotions that really intrigued me – there are subsets of positive emotions, and they are called self-transcendent emotions, and it's this idea that when you - I'll give you an example in a second – but the idea that when you experience a particular emotion it actually like takes you out of yourself with the ability to connect you to other people.Saintsing: Okay, yeah.Ziemer: So, you transcend yourself essentially, right? With the purpose of connecting you with others, so like creating social connections.Saintsing: So, like what kind of emotion would that be?Ziemer: Yeah, so ones that are talked about frequently are emotion of like gratitude for example. Awe is one of my favorite emotions and actually what really started my interest in positive emotions. So, Dacher Keltner here in Psychology studies awe. The research has been I think maybe 10 years now, 10 to 15 years on, and so, rather in its infancy still. But, awe is really this experience of when you are presented with this like mind-blowing stimulus that you can’t really even comprehend, and a lot of people, they realize they're in awe when they're like, wow. Like wow is like this vocal reaction, right? So, a lot of our research comes out of nature, so like the Grand Canyon for example, or like beauty, music, and so, it's this idea that you then feel relatively small in this like greater vastness, but there's something kind of bigger than you out there, right?Saintsing: Yes.Ziemer: And, awe could be negative, too, right? It could be, it could be like a tornado. It could be a person, that you're like, how did that happen? How did they get into power? I’m in Berkeley, so I think I'm safe to say that here.Saintsing: Yeah, I think you’re safe to say that anywhere. Well, maybe not. So, so there's this like speechlessness about awe that's like really yeah. Is that kind of fundamental to the self-transcendence, or…Ziemer: No, not specifically more self-transcendence is like you are really kind of taken out of yourself so you're focusing on yourself less. It's kind of like this – sometime, I mean oftentimes self-transcendence is spoken around like a spiritual religious context, but it really is this idea that we're connecting with someone else so in like in cooperation or caretaking. Like compassion for example is a self-transcendent emotion. Some emotion researchers would say that these are.Saintsing: So, it's self-transcendent because you're –Ziemer: Go aheadSaintsing: With awe, you're connecting with someone else because you both have this like awestruck reaction with something, and you can relate more because it seems like you're reacting to some – I mean aside from maybe when you're in awe of a person in particular – but it seems like you're in awe of some spectacular vision, or…Ziemer: Yes, and you could be by yourself, right?Saintsing: Yeah.Ziemer: You could be by yourself in the Grand Canyon, but because you kind of recognize that you're the smaller sense of self, that you, that there's something greater than then you out there, that it then leads you – and I think perhaps and maybe I'm even overstating here, but I don't know if they fully understand the mechanisms of why it leads to social connection, but just they call it in research literature they call it pro-social, so the ability to like be in awe allows you to be more altruistic, more generous, to want to help out other people because you realize that you're not alone essentially. But, there is a bigger thing out there than you, this like collective value.Saintsing: Oh, yeah. That's really interesting is that that kind of, you know, thinking about religion, right? Where you have – I think all religions but I guess I'm not sure – it would have this belief in God would generally inspire awe in someone believed in that. And so, is that kind of the basis of religion having this community like tapping into this community building sense of awe?Ziemer: Yeah, yeah, definitely. The origins of awe – I couldn't – when scholars write about awe they oftentimes reference, like, reverence to God. It's kind of mind-blowing concept, and you feel like there's something greater than you out there, so to speak. But, then you're coming together as a community, yeah, but around this belief,Saintsing: Right. So, there's more emotions than just awe that would through self-transcendence allow this community-building?Ziemer: Yeah, yeah, so oftentimes folks also speak about gratitude that way. They speak about self-compassion. Now mind you there's a lot of disagreement amongst the emotional world, so I don't even want to get into like the semantics. What I think is important to share, though, most specifically to my interests is, I think, some would say that love is also this self-transcendent trait. So, my own research interests over the past few years have really evolved into this idea of self-love and it's been an interesting journey for sure. As I started talking about self-love with folks over the past, I don't know, eight months or so from a research perspective because there's such a gradient, a spectrum so to speak of how people see self-love. So, if I go back to the self-transcendent nature, how I see self-love is self-love really has this ability to take us out of ourselves to then connect to others so we're focusing on ourselves like filling up our own love tank so to speak with the ability to then show up for others more and to connect more because if I'm feeling really good in myself and I'm taking care of myself that means I have more bandwidth to show up for other people as opposed to if my love tank is empty if my self-love is low then I'm doing things perhaps with expectations of receiving in return. When that's not happening, I'm feeling resentful and all that is very like negative low vibration feeling within ourselves, and ultimately, it's not the type of connection that we're searching for, right? To me self-love – and I'll say that if I can to give you a definition of self-love – one of the folks I've seen written about it the most, who wrote about the most is a psychologist and philosopher Erich Fromm, and he wrote a book called The Art of Loving, I believe. It was like in the five different types of love, I believe. It's like it's a hundred-page book, and it's really easy to read, and it talks about like five different types of love, like a love for God, a love from your parents. It talks about like a brotherly love – and that’s more like a friendship kind of feeling – but he also talks about this love for self, and it's this idea of caring for, respecting of yourself and your actions in the way that you're going about your life, and it's this stagnant – for me, I think it really is a stagnant way of being, so when there are adversities and when we have to be resilient, right, self-love is so important, but even when things are going great, right, like self-love is still a constant thing, and it's, I think, it's actually tied to other emotions that when we are in a state of self-love we actually experience calm and joy, and we're able to be more aware for these other opportunities to opt in to connection, right?Saintsing: Yeah.Ziemer: But I think – if I can just say – I think there's a myth I'd really like to bust actually about self-love, which is I think oftentimes there is this, there's this idea that emerged I think in the 80s maybe, or the 90s – I'm blanking on my timeframe right now – came out of the self-help movement which is, which was to say that like before, before you can love anyone else or anyone can really love you that you have to love yourself first, right? So, which for me I find problematic in a lot of ways. I feel like it doesn't really encapsulate the full story. I think that when we are really loving ourselves, sure I think perhaps we're choosing better partners or choosing better relationships that are healing and wonderful for us, right? But, I think – and I see this in this self-love movement right now – that kind of happens in pop culture that puts such an onus or a burden on people to really like, there's almost a perfectionism tendency of, like, I need to get to self-love. Otherwise I'm not good enough, and yeah, and this idea of like not being good enough, that's truly not self-love anyway, right? It really is a self-accepting piece, and so, I think the second part of this, also this myth I want to bust, is that, you know, we are wired for social connection, right? There are researchers, and Brené Brown has talked about this. Matthew Lieberman talks about this, and like an actual brain part of our brain literally is like wired to connect, and so, if I go back to this idea of self-love that, when we are opting into relationships and connection with people, that it can the reciprocal nature can be so healing within ourselves that we don't have to first achieve this like unachievable self-love before we can get into relationships with other people, okay? So, did I explain myself okay there?Saintsing: Yeah, you, so you're saying that self-love has this requirement that you accept yourself as you are, right? Which I guess is true of any sort of love, right?Ziemer: Yeah.Saintsing: Whether it’s directed inward or outward, right, there's this acceptance to it.Ziemer: Lovely, yeah.Saintsing: And so, you're saying that people tend to view self-love as something that they earn from themselves.Ziemer: Yeah, yeah, I think that's a great. Right. There's this like earning quality, and I think that's really well said. That it's like, to earn implies I have to do, to do, to obtain, obtain, obtain as opposed to like self-love just is because I exist, because you exist right here right now, right? And, that's my like mindfulness piece kind of tapping in there a little bit, but it just is.Saintsing: Yeah.Ziemer: It's, it's been interesting when I talk to – so my own research interest about like what am I actually studying for my PhD, because I'm a social worker, I'm also very much interested in like interventions like what can we do alongside our clients, alongside our community. What can we do in tandem with them to kind of get them this outcome that they're looking for. So, perhaps it's like feeling better about themselves if they're experiencing depression for example, right?Saintsing: Right.Ziemer: And, with self-love I started thinking about, is there a self-love intervention that would be really interesting to try out and study in some way from this like scientifically rigorous procedure for a scientific research method, right? And, when I started talking to people about, there's a common one that is spoken about in self-help, and I've also found it prevalent in addiction communities in like rehab, for example, where you look at yourself in the mirror you make, you literally make eye contact with yourself in the mirror, and you say something positive about yourself. So, I prefer that it's not statements related to like your physical appearance because I do think that it could take like a narcissistic trend, but we're really thinking about like a self-affirming statement, like I'm a good friend or even – I think and really I'm such a fan of this is – really just telling yourself that you love yourself. So, saying like I love you in the mirror while you're making eye contact with yourself. To me, to love, to love somebody else is to say like, I see you, and so self-love, you're really like, okay I see you, you know? Like, you're not that bad. Like, you're actually pretty great, and I will tell you that when I've talked to so many people about this, adolescents, I've spoken to clients of mine who are coming to see me wanting to feel better from depression, I've spoken to scholars about this, and so many people, I get two reactions. One is like absolute repulsion about absolutely not. I will not look at myself in the mirror. Like, this is, why would I ever do that, and two, I think going back to this idea that you were talking about. It's almost like confusion about well like why would I even think about myself. Why would I love myself as like this other entity, but I'm so focused on, you know, loving everybody else. That really to love is to love others, right? Like in scholarly research, we talk about one of the definitions of love is like being a trusted caregiver to others. I mean that's a very amended definition, but love is always this other-oriented emotion, and so, self-love, it's like, like why would I, why would I even do that.Saintsing: It's kind of like awe in some senses. In awe you sort of see something spectacular that makes you see how small you are or how much more there is.Ziemer: Yeah.Saintsing: And, in this self-love you have to see yourself as just another person instead of like where love is flowing from, right? But, self-love kind of like makes you realize you're not like the center of the universe or something. That you're, that you're just another person, and that like, that, that makes you more able, as you said in the self-transcendence, to connect with other people, I guess.Ziemer: I think this is actually why I feel so strongly about self-love is because I think this exact idea that you're talking about is folks who are experiencing depression or addiction, for example right? So, I'm actually, I'm funded. My dissertation is funded through the NIAAA, which is alcohol abuse and I work specifically with the funder here in the Bay Area that alcohol research group. So, oftentimes when we're experiencing addiction or depression we become so tunnel vision in our own mind about what's wrong with ourselves, how things aren't working for me and when we're in depression and addiction, often social isolation is happening it's very difficult to connect to others. And so, I'm such a believer that self-love could have the potential, and this is where I'm curious, right? Like, so from, you know, I'm hearing like my mentors and my advisors’ thoughts in my head right now about, you know, sometimes in the scientific world it can almost be a negative to be a believer, right? That, I think like self-love is a super power. But, I really need to employ my like scientifically rigorous, you know, unbiased view so to speak. Let's be curious about this. Could self-love actually be a superpower? As opposed to like approaching this self-love as a superpower, right? So, I should – let me reel it back for a second to say that, however, yes I do feel like, coming back to this point of awe, that, that self-love definitely, I would hypothesize, leads to feelings of awe because of this ability to connect us to other people, and that it gets us out of our own head. I think my greater vision for my research is to think like how can we employ self-love. It's free. It’s accessible, which I like, right, because a lot of these other therapies, cognitive behavioral therapy. Although I'm a believer, you see there's an access issue. If you go to a private practitioner in New York City, it's $200. I think San Francisco, it's 150, 200. So, my greater vision really would be for people to be able to really continue to cultivate this self-love within themselves.Saintsing: More specifically, what, what would you say your research for your PhD actually entails?Ziemer: Yeah, so yeah, thanks to that questions. I think self-love first. I was just kind of thinking of self-love, I think of, is this like umbrella term, this idea that if self-love is an umbrella and the prongs. There are many different prongs. So, to me it's this idea of like self-compassion, which is like when we're judging ourselves, criticizing ourselves, we’re able to accept ourselves, you know, amidst that. Self-care, which is like the respecting, doing things, really acting caring towards ourselves. This self-esteem idea, right, that we feel competent about ourselves. So, so the reason that I say this kind of umbrella term is because there's little research out there right now that that actually includes self-love, certainly how I know it to be true in these in therapeutic communities, for example. So, I'm so fascinated by, I'll say, phenomena of self-love in popular science in like the Psychology Today blogs, on social media. Like, if you go to Instagram and you type in #selflove, you get 32 million posts on Instagram. Google, you Google self-love, you get three billion returns. So, something is happening out there. What is it? So, I think what the, to me, the intriguing pieces. So, before I can go ahead and develop an intervention, right, even though I really want to jump to that phase, we know that a PhD that you have to take little bits by bits, right? That is actually talking about a career-long pursuit. So, it really, my own research really is conceptualizing this idea of self-love in these lay theory views. So, when I say lay theory I don't mean like scholars who have already written about self-love. I mean people who are on Instagram, and they're posting about self-love, so right now I'm in the process of thinking about perhaps analyzing Instagram posts to see how people, what sort of images people are posting when they're doing #selflove, and specifically within the context of like addiction and sobriety and recovery and that, so where these two worlds of like self-love and addiction intersects and how are people and these lay communities, you know, these therapists, everyday people, how are they talking about self-love? I'm really curious to kind of dig through that because I see, I do see some posts that could be it seen as narcissism, right? Right? I see posts that are very much moving away from this like self-care realm. So, so self-care really is rooted in this like black feminist queer theory, Audrey Lorde. This idea that like you're taking care of yourself so that you can show up for the collective, and this really activist mentality to now this transition of like #selfcareday Starbucks ad with your Frappuccino, whatever. On the beach, #selfcare, right? This is like commoditization, right, of self-care, and people there's you know, so there's, there's like #selfcare, #selflove, but what are we really talking about here? And, I'm so curious to kind of capture some of that, to also include therapists’ voices, people in recovery to kind of see like, what, what is this idea of, of self-love to them?Saintsing: Okay, so you draw on psychology, sociology, lots of different research techniques.Ziemer: Yeah, behavioral health.Saintsing: Yeah, so would you say that's generally true? People who are getting PhDs in the School of Social Welfare, that this is really interdisciplinary?Ziemer: Yeah, what a lovely question. Yes, thank you for saying that. This is why I love social work so much by the way. I really love the social work profession because I do feel like you know in this applied profession we really are always working in these interdisciplinary environments, right? If you're like a clinician working in a hospital you're working with doctors and nurses and psychiatrists for example, right?Saintsing: Right.Ziemer: And so, I think the beauty of this PhD at Berkeley in the Social Welfare Department has so much been about the freedom to connect with other professors and other departments. It's, so in public health for example I've connected with some professors there or some psychology whether it's emotions research or like adolescent development psychopathology for example. So, and I have, yeah, I have you know lovely people in my cohort who are bridging the gap with like anthropology, criminology, for example, so yeah, education. It's really, it's cool.Saintsing: And, you knew that you wanted to be a social worker right out of college?Ziemer: I took a very interesting path. I think I always knew, like in high school, I always was intrigued by the psychology profession, and yeah, I was, I was thought, you know, I'm so drawn to like authenticity and people's lives. Like, what's really happening, you know? I always was drawn to that, but when I was in college, I went to the University of Wisconsin, and they had a great business school, and so, I got a business degree, and I actually, my family, I come from, you know, a long line of people who are in the business world. My dad had been in sales for so long. My brother’s in sales now. My mom was, you know, this is like badass. I don't know if I'm allowed to say that. Badass in the corporate world. So, it was always kind of an influence for me, and I did, I was a consultant, an IT consultant, but I realized, like, yeah, I need to, I felt like there was something, my soul was dying. I really wanted to pursue something that I was so excited and curious about, so yeah, about eight years ago I got my Masters in Social Work. I started my MSW program in New York City. That coincided too with some things that were happening in my family, and it just felt like the right time to like leave the corporate world and dive into the Social Work arena.Saintsing: And then, you, you got your masters, and then you worked a little while as a social worker, right?Ziemer: Yeah, so I I did my MSW. It’s a two-year program, and then I was working in New York City for three years at an after school, like a high school Support Program. It was an after-school program, and it was, I mean, I learned so much. It was incredible. I have such love. It's, the program is to reach youth and it's a working at a public high school in Brooklyn, and I think there, maybe, I don't know, our team was maybe ten people or something, and I have such love to this day for these people that I worked with. I mean the environment was so fun. Like, you – we were, we were working with teenagers, teenagers who didn't have a lot of resources at their disposal. I mean this is like a New York City public-funded high school. It's what, the school's we were working with were like C grades, so the way that New York City rates their schools like ABC, so we were a C school, and that means people that I worked with, the strategies they were using were so creative to get these young people what they needed while also providing such a safe space for these young people to learn about themselves. And so, I was actually, I was doing therapy with kids who are high-risk, so who were at risk for suicide, who were just really having a hard time academically or at home and whatnot, but it was such a fun environment. I mean people were so authentic, and I mean, I don't know your experience with young people, but young people, they can sense when you BS. And so, you really have no other choice but to show up authentically, right? And it was such a gift really to work there.Saintsing: So, that was a great experience, and what I guess drove you… I – most people in social work, or if you're a professional, I guess, you mostly just need the masters, and then, you could do the work. What drove you onward to the doctorate?Ziemer: Yeah, yeah, so, so I think there were two things. So, one was I would run, every Monday afternoon, I'd run a girl's group. So, like 16-, 17-year-olds. They would come, and we would talk about all the things. Whatever they wanted to talk about, and I was finding a lot of the girls were expressing such anger, and this anger of just like what was just happening in life but then you know the microcosm of like the school environment and Facebook and people calling each other out and you know subliminal subs that were being thrown on Facebook for example, that would then transfer to the school day the next day. And, there would be fights, and girls would get suspended, and so, when I started talking to them about anger and what anger did for them and getting to fight, it really, getting into a fight is a release, right? Like, your adrenaline’s so high and you punch someone out or you do something like, you feel better but it's instantaneous because any of these long-term consequences of getting suspended, your parents finding out, what not, right? Right, so I'd say to them like, yeah what are strategies? How can I – literally I was like what are some strategies that we can use in order to kind of sort through all the different feelings that anger brings? Because ultimately anger is powerlessness, like we get angry when we feel powerless, and so, I started investigating mindfulness. Mindfulness was really just becoming a thing. This was like 2014. At least that was when I first started hearing about it, and so, I would try to understand like, what is this mindfulness? How do I use it? So, mindfulness really is, a definition from Jon Kabat-Zinn in the simplest form that I like, is this idea of non-judgmentally noticing, so like noticing that I got really pissed when someone posted something on Facebook about me that may not be true and like then taking the breath in the pause before I respond, before I respond something nasty to someone on Facebook or want to punch them out the next day for example, right? When you're talking to adolescents, this pause is very difficult because you're also talking about like an age in development where you have impulsivity, and like they're trying to figure out who they are? So, I started diving into this mindfulness. I thought like this could really work, but I was so, mindfulness research was so new at the time. I think it really hit its peak around like 2016 in terms of like the amount of journals are published on it like exponentially increased. So, I knew that, how mindfulness is being talked about in terms of the population, I was working with, so people who were coming from primarily like black and brown communities, lower socioeconomic having toxic stress, mindfulness felt very like white, waspy, affluent. Part one. Part two was I couldn't figure out what are these mindfulness techniques and how can we actually apply them to adolescence. So, I am getting interested in that and started reading all that I could and figured I really wanted to work on interventions for adolescents that were geared around mindfulness to these specific populations I talked about where I felt like there was such a lack of evidence at that point for these groups, so that was part one. Part two: around the same time, I read an op-ed piece in The New York Times written by Dr. Keltner here in psychology, and it was, what is – something like, What is the Emotion of Awe, and I thought that sounds like, what is awe? And, how should I get to know this person? Who is this person? Which then started, for me, like a flurry of googling UC Berkeley, and I knew I wasn't going to be do PhD in Psych, but I found a professor here, Valerie Shapiro, who's my advisor and has been so lovely navigating this PhD world with me. She's a prevention and implementation science researcher here in School of Social Welfare, and she had a study examining social emotional learning programs here in elementary schools in California, so like teaching little kids about empathy for example. So, I thought, oh that's like emotion, and it has to do with like kids and in schools. Like, even though my interests aren't completely aligned, let me reach out to her and see if I could work with her. So, that's kind of how I came to study. My two main areas really have been mindfulness and then positive emotions, specifically now self-love but in this greater context of you know these social problems, like social isolation, depression, addiction and yeah.Saintsing: So, unfortunately, it's been a lot of fun, but we're coming up towards our time limit. Usually at the end of the interview we'll take a minute to offer guests a chance to address the audience about anything that they'd like to talk about. Oftentimes, people talk about like social issues or some things specific to their research.Ziemer: I think, well one thing I want to say for sure is that I think I just want to do a shout out of gratitude as I've been really developing this idea of self-love, I have been working with an undergrad in the Social Welfare Department, Joyce, who's really has helped me kind of start thinking about all this like self-care and self-compassion and where all these terms kind of intersect and cataloging these different Instagram posts to figure out like, yeah, what, what really is self-love and how people are talking about it. So, I wanted to do a shout out to her, and then, I think, you know, lastly, I guess I would say that I think for me I think it's such an important point to hit home is that for me self-love really isn't a selfishness, but it really is, and it's not this like me-focused thing, but it really is in this idea of continuing to like connect and show up as our authentic selves with others, so I think it has some serious healing power behind it. So, we'll see. Yeah, more will be revealed.Saintsing: We all look forward to the results of your research. Thank you so much. Today I've been speaking with KellyZiemerfrom the School of Social Welfare. We've been speaking about her research on positive emotions and the potential therapeutic benefits of self-love. Thank you so much for being on the show, Kelly.Ziemer: Oh, thank you for having me. This is lovely.Saintsing: Tune in in two weeks for the next episode of The Graduates.

Sara ElShafie

Keywords: climate change, global change biology, reptiles, science communication, narrativeAndrew Saintsing: Hi, you're tuned into 90.7 FM KALX Berkeley. I'm AndrewSaintsing, and this is The Graduates, the interview talk show where we speak to UC Berkeley graduate students about their work here on campus and around the world. Today I'm joined by SaraElShafiefrom the Department of Integrative Biology. Welcome to the show, Sara.Sara ElShafie: Thanks for having me.Saintsing: It's so great to have you here. So, Sarah, you're a paleontologist. Is that correct?ElShafie: Yes, I'm a paleontologist. I always introduce myself as a global change biologist, which just means that I study how climate change and environmental change impact life over time, and paleontology is part of it.Saintsing: Right. So, would you say you're first and foremost a global change biologist?ElShafie: Yeah, just because I don't only work on fossils. I also look at stuff that's around today in order to understand how climate change and stuff impacted life in the past and also what that tells us about where we're headed now and in the future.Saintsing: Okay, cool. So, you're looking at like our current climate change?ElShafie: Yes.Saintsing: Yeah, but also, so the climate has changed a lot in the past, you'd say.ElShafie: Yes, and, and there have been really dramatic events of climate change before, some of which kind of mirror what's going on today, so I look at how those past climate change events impacted life that lived millions of years ago in order to try to better understand what we might expect from climate change today and how it will impact animals that are currently around and also people.Saintsing: What were kind of the outcomes of past climate changes? Is it looking bad for us?ElShafie: Well, in terms of like how climate change now is going to affect society, yeah there are a lot of concerning ramifications that we're already seeing. In terms of how it's affected life in the past, it has all kinds of effects. It can affect where things can live. It can affect what they eat or what's available for them to eat. It can affect how big they get. So, I kind of look at all of those factors in a big picture.Saintsing: You look at all animals, all plants, all organisms? Or, are you looking at specific things?ElShafie: Specifically, I focus on reptiles because reptiles are especially susceptible to changes in climate and changes in their environment because they can't generate their own body heat metabolically the way you and I canSaintsing: Right.ElShafie: Most of them can't and I look at lizards and, and crocodiles and their relatives specifically because they're really abundant in the fossil record, and they have a lot in common with lizards and crocodiles that are around today, so I can use the lizards and crocodiles that are around today to understand the ones that are in the fossil record.Saintsing: Okay, and so, you are looking at how their bodies change over time basically? You're looking at how big the fossils are at certain periods compared to other periods, before and after climate change and how big they are compared to today?ElShafie: Yeah, pretty much body size is the main metric that I use, the main kind of factor that is influenced by climate change because I can use the partial skeletons that I find of lizards and crocodiles in the fossil record to figure out how big they were in the past at any given point before, during, or after a major climate change event. And, I can use lizards and crocodiles that are around today to try to estimate how big they were in the past using only a piece of a skull or a piece of a limb, for example, because it's actually very rare to find whole skeletons in the fossil record of these things.Saintsing: Right. That must be really frustrating.ElShafie: Yeah, well, it also means that I get to I have an excuse to study lots of stuff that's around today in order to understand the fossils, so it gives me a more holistic research experience which I enjoy.Saintsing: So, do you actually get to study living animals? Or, do you mostly look at the bones of the living animals?ElShafie: I do. I study living animals, the living lizards and crocodilians, to understand their body proportions and how I can estimate like the whole length of the animal from just one element, like one piece of the skull or the jaw or the arm bone or something and also to understand how the animals live today and is there any relationship between their morphology, how they look, how their bones look, and what part of a habitat they might live in or what they might be eating or what their physiology might be like.Saintsing: Okay.ElShafie: So yeah studying the living animals is really important for understanding the fossil animals.Saintsing: Right, and so you study specifically reptiles and crocodiles? So you say you studying global change across time, but is there specific period you're interested in, or are you just comparing all the different periods?ElShafie: Yeah, so specifically I look at a period of time, geologic time called the Paleogene which was from about 66 million years ago to about 23-ish million years ago. So, this is right after dinosaurs went extinct up until about 23 million years ago, at which point we had ice at the poles again. We actually didn't have ice at the poles earlier right after the dinosaurs went extinct, and so, during that whole timespan, climate change was happening. The world started off pretty warm, and then it got super-hot relatively quickly right around fifty-six million years ago when there is this incident called the Paleocene-Eocene thermal maximum. So, within a relatively short span of time, a few hundred thousand years or so, the world got really, really hot really fast. Like it increased five degrees Celsius or so, and that's actually even hotter than the warming that we've experienced just in the last century or two, but the rate was actually not even quite as fast as what we're experiencing now, so it is a really powerful analogous event to look at and to better understand what we can expect with the rapid climate change that we're experiencing today. So, it got super, super-hot and around that time the world looked very, very different. Like, there was no ice at the poles at all and the interior of North America actually looked like a jungle if you can picture Utah which is now a desert looking like the Amazon. That's how different it was, which is really crazy to think about. So, to find fossils of crocodiles and these huge lizards and like the first primates and crazy horses and all kinds of stuff in the deserts of Utah and Wyoming and Colorado, and, and it seems it's all from a jungle that looked more like what South America looks like today, which is really awesome, and then over time it kind of dried out and got more arid and more grassy after that.Saintsing: Thinking about what I've grown up thinking about, you know, the extinction of dinosaurs, right? You get this picture in your head that the asteroid hits and then things get really cold.ElShafie: Mm-hmm.Saintsing: There was this drop in temperature that led to the dinosaur extinction still?ElShafie: Yeah, I think it got cold for a while. Right after the asteroid hit event it like, you know, blocked out a lot of sunlight and stuff, but then after that, you know, about 10 million years or so or not even that long. Then the world had largely recovered, but it also looked very different.Saintsing: So, it was an overall pretty warm climate?ElShafie: Yeah, it's – the earth has gone through a lot of changes over millions of years, and it's cool to look at those changes on a timescale of millions of years rather than just, you know, a few hundred years or even thousand years because, since climate is changing so rapidly today, and it's, it's different than anything that humans have experienced in human history. We really have no analog for it in our own history, so looking at much older events in the past and the rate that that happened and the changes that happened and at what pace they happened helps us try to anticipate what we can expect in the future.Saintsing: Right, so what brought about – why did the ice appear again at the poles?ElShafie: At that point Antarctica became isolated, and it was isolated by a current that still flows now around Antarctica. I think it's called the circumpolar current or something, but it keeps, it basically keeps Antarctica refrigerated and that's part of what contributed to it.Saintsing: Just having Antarctica in the place that it's in was enough to give us the climate we have today?ElShafie: Well, yeah. Cuz it's almost like having two giant freezers at each pole of the globe so to speak, and, that you know, they don't exist in isolation either. The ocean currents travel all over the world. They pass by the Arctic or the Antarctic and they bring cold water and that affects the like nutrients and upwelling in other parts of the world including the California coast, and it, you know, it affects how climate and temperature play out over the entire Earth. So, yeah, it's all connected.Saintsing: Yeah, I guess we're dealing with how connected we are right now, right?ElShafie: Mm-hmm. Exactly.Saintsing: So as a climate change scientist – or a global change scientist but you, you know, you're really interested in climate change, I guess. A lot of your work is focused on informing the public on climate change and about science in general. I know you've done a lot of work on improving science communication as a student here, right? Or, at least studying it to understand how it can be improved. So, yeah, can you tell us a little bit more about the work you're doing on that front?ElShafie: Absolutely, yeah, science communication and outreach has always been a big passion of mine and that really started in college, and by the time I got into my master's degree, I realized that I not only wanted that to be a big focus of my career, I actually wanted it to be my primary career direction, in fact. So, I actually came to Berkeley with the intention of pursuing a career in science outreach leadership and science communication, and I knew that I wanted that to be a big part of my activity while pursuing my dissertation here in integrative biology because I also wanted to get the highest scientific training. So, while I've been here working on my dissertation I've also been doing a lot of work in science communication which started as just an attempt to improve my own skills because I realized a couple years into my program here that I myself was really struggling to explain my research to my own family members…Saintsing: Right.ElShafie: In a way that was at all meaningful to them. It really bothered me that I was struggling with that, so I decided to work on it, and I realized that I wasn't the only one that seemed to be having that challenge, and probably a lot of my peers could benefit from it as well, so I got really interested in storytelling, in story development because I figured, well everybody likes stories, so if I can talk about my science in that context, you know, and using storytelling, good storytelling then maybe I would get somewhere. And, I've always been a huge film buff and especially a huge fan of Pixar movies, and I knew that Pixar Animation Studios was actually only a couple miles from our campus. Pixar is in Emeryville, which was just south of Berkley, and so, I just decided to email them one day and actually got a response from a couple story artists who were really interested, and I invited them to come chat with grad students at our UC Museum of Paleontology. We’re based in integrative biology. And, it was going to be just a kind of pilot seminar conversation, let's just see where this goes with some grads, and it's turned into everyone from undergrads to emeritus faculty crammed into our little seminar room to hear from this story artist who was just talking about bread-and-butter stuff of the kind of strategies that they use to develop stories for their films at Pixar. And then, we had a conversation about how some of those strategies might apply to how we can talk to the public about science in a more effective and engaging way, and that was about three and a half years ago now, and since then, you know, that one seminar totally changed how I was thinking about science communication, and everybody else who was in the room responded really positively to it and remarked how useful it was, so that sparked an ongoing conversation and more and more artists at Pixar got involved volunteering their time, and now it's become this whole workshop series called Science through Story that I've been running for about three and a half years now. It started here at Berkeley on campus and has since, we've gone to other campuses, conferences, museums, organizations. So, yeah it's been a really, really fun experience and very helpful.Saintsing: Yeah, that sounds really incredible. So, you, you've taken this on the road. Is it still mostly Pixar is the main partner involved, or do you have like other studios, other artists involved?ElShafie: I've worked with other artists at this point, and the workshops, it's not a formal program of Pixar. Pixar doesn't sponsor it or anything financially. They've just been very generous in allowing their, some of the artists that work at the studio, anybody who wants to be involved to volunteer their time. So, several artists have come and run workshops with me here at Berkeley and at a few other campuses and conferences, and I meet with artists there periodically to learn from them about the creative process they use and how they approach story development, and then I adapt that into strategies that scientists and science educators can use to talk about science and an engaging way, using storytelling techniques, so Pixar people from Pixar have been involved. I've also worked with an artist who works at Industrial Light and Magic and a couple artists from DreamWorks Animation as well as an artist who was working at Double Fine productions and a guy who's a gentleman who started his own graphic design firm. Improv people, all kinds of artists through these workshops, and also we ran actually a full-day symposium called Science through Narrative: Engaging Broad Audiences, and that took place at a major biology conference, the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology last year in 2018, when the meeting was here in San Francisco. We had a full day symposium on this topic, on science storytelling with speakers from both the scientific community and from different artistic disciplines all weighing in from their different perspectives and experiences on how to engage the audiences with science through storytelling and in different avenues, different media, different disciplines. It was really, really awesome because, to my knowledge, I think that's the first time that scientists and artists have spoken together on the same platform at a major biology conference, and we also had a lot of early career presenters involved as part of that, and out of that symposium we not only had the event itself but we also ended up publishing a whole volume of papers in a peer-reviewed biology journal, Integrative and Comparative Biology, which are now available online, and these are all peer-reviewed papers in a biology journal, but they are all written to be accessible to any reader even a high school student. Actually, we had some high school students in the past read it for some workshops that I've done at high schools in the area. We use papers from that symposium with REU, research experiences for undergraduates, program just this past summer. So, anybody can read them and get something out of it, and I, my own paper that I contributed to that volume is just called Making Science Engaging for Broad Audiences through Stories, something like that, and I wrote that paper for myself three years ago for any grad student or any student who wants to start doing more science communication or wants to get involved with science outreach and doesn't know where to start. If you're looking for a place to start, if that, if that sounds like you, then I encourage you to check out these papers because it's not just, you know, it's grad students, its scientists, its animators, it's video game developers, it's people who work in Hollywood, it’s people who work with data visualization. All kinds of voices weighing in on this, and, and they're really a fun read.Saintsing: That sounds like a really great resource.ElShafie: Yeah.Saintsing: I hope everyone takes the time to check that out. You started by talking to people at Pixar, and that was like obviously, Pixar's really close to Berkeley, and so that's sort of a matter of like convenience, right? But also, I just noticed that a lot of the people that you mentioned kind of are involved in special effects or animation or things like that? Is there a reason why that's more relatable to science, or is that just a matter of, like, you went down this avenue of talking to animators or people who are involved in animation and then that snowballed into more and more people who were involved in that side of the story developing process?ElShafie: It's a good question. Honestly, I think that scientists can learn something valuable from any type of artist, no matter what discipline because artists and scientists actually have a lot in common in terms of how we approach problems and, and what we're all trying to produce might seem very different, but ultimately the approach that we take is very similar. Both scientists and artists have to use their observation skills. That's very, very important for both conducting science and for doing art. It's all about observation. Both of us are trying to distill complexity out of a whole bunch of material that we could use, and we're trying to distill the most cogent, most cohesive, most compelling version of that story, of that study as we're presenting it, of that thing that we're trying to capture in some, some visual form or a musical form. So, it's distilling complexity. It's using the power of observation, and in terms of the artists that I ended up working with, that was just, it kind of was a combination of who I happen to meet through my networking, people that were introduced to me by colleagues that expressed interest, and we were really wonderfully fortunate that we got such a great variety of people involved. And, that was also part of it that we, you know, if we already had someone who is an animator, then we tried to get other disciplines that we didn't yet have represented for that symposium in particular. So, that was kind of how we went about it, but I would encourage scientists to talk to any and all kinds of artists because you can learn something valuable from anybody and any and all kinds of scientists.Saintsing: This is just a reminder that you’re tuned into The Graduates. Today I'm speaking with SaraElShafiefrom the Department of Integrative Biology. So, you mentioned that you came to Berkeley with the intent of being a science communicator?ElShafie: Yeah.Saintsing: Of pursuing some kind of leadership position in science outreach?ElShafie: When I came to Berkeley my, my long-term goal was to become like the director of a major science museum or science outreach nonprofit, something along those lines, and I knew that to do that I would, it would be really helpful if I had a PhD in science. People in those positions tend to be either previous professors or curators at museums or past CEOs or university presidents and I wasn't interested in the latter two so much, but I really wanted I wanted to learn more science. I wanted to get the highest scientific training, so that's why I came here to do my PhD because I was very upfront about my career aspirations in my interviews for PhD programs and when I came to Berkeley, they were just totally supportive of that. My advisor was very supportive, the people at the UC Museum of Paleontology that I spoke with were very supportive. So, I, that's why I came here and also because being in the Department of Integrative Biology, which has this wonderful resource, the Berkeley Natural History Museums. We have a paleontology museum; a zoology museum, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology; plus an herbarium, the Jepson Herbarium; and the Essig Museum of Entomology with all the insects. We have all of those in-house, right in our own department, and, and all those museums, especially UCMP, is very, very active with science outreach. So, I realized that by coming to Integrative Biology at Berkeley, I could not only be doing my dissertation, which, Integrative Biology was perfect because I wanted to do research that integrated several different fields together, but also, I could be learning from these museum educators and people who do a lot of science outreach and community outreach. So, it was kind of like getting training in both areas at the same time.Saintsing: Right, so you graduated from undergrad knowing that you wanted to do science communication then, or was that more of a kind of developing process?ElShafie: I would say it was an ongoing process. I did my undergraduate work at the University of Chicago. I'm from Chicago originally, and, and I had a great experience at U Chicago. I was working in, at the UC, a new Chicago fossil lab there for years as an undergrad, and I did some research for a thesis and everything, but through that fossil lab, I also had the opportunity to participate in a lot of science outreach with Chicago Public Schools after school and summer science programs, and I really enjoyed that and I loved seeing the transformation that the students would go through just coming in not really sure if science is for them and then leaving much more empowered in general. Not just in seeing themselves as scientists. So, I knew that I wanted that type of work to be a big part of my career as I was graduating undergrad, and then when I went into my master's program which was at the University of Nebraska in Lincoln, coming in I knew that I wanted to pursue more scientific research and get my graduate degree, but one semester in I realized I think I actually want the outreach to be my main focus. I was really jazzed about the research I was doing. I was really enjoying it, but I was starting to realize that my primary passion was not just doing the science but actually sharing the science with other people who might not have access to it yet or might not be familiar with it or see themselves as, as scientists or understand the role that science plays in their lives. That was really my, my main focus that I wanted to take, but I also know I wanted the scientific training so I finished my masters in Nebraska, and fortunately my, my master's advisor in Nebraska was very supportive of that realization in that aspiration, and he basically said, hey if you want to be the bridge between science and the public, awesome. We need more people like that. Get your masters in science first because that'll open more doors to you down the road, but while you're here start exploring and figure out what that career path might look like for you. And, I was doing a lot of my data collection for my master's thesis in collections at natural history museums around the country, and through that, I was kind of reminded how much I love working with museums and loved being in museums and because that was a big part of my childhood growing up in Chicago which has great museums and zoos and aquaria and such. So, I knew that I wanted to work with museums and an informal education in some capacity and kind of by the time I finished my Master's, I had realized, yeah, I think I want to pursue a leadership position with a museum or some science outreach program because there seems to be a really big demand for people who can fill those positions, people who can wear the science hat but also have a lot of outreach, education, communication experience and also who understand how to manage a team and manage a budget.Saintsing: So, you would say that as a child it was probably your experiences going to museums that sparked this whole career interest in science and in science communication?ElShafie: Definitely, I would always be begging my parents to take me to the Field Museum or the Shedd Aquarium or the Brookfield Zoo or the Museum of Science and Industry. Growing up in Chicago those were like my favorite places to hang out, and, and in addition, I would visit my parents or my grandparents down in the Florida Keys every winter. They would spend the winters down there, and my grandfather was a fisherman, and he used to take me out on his fishing boat, and I would snorkel off of his boat and we would see dolphins jumping around, and I just, I think that's, that's the earliest memory that I have as a child, when I was like six and he took us out on Christmas Day and all these, this whole pod of dolphins came and jumped all around us and it was just the most magical thing I've ever had in my six-year-old memory. That's when I really fell in love with nature and animals, and I've been hooked ever since, and, and the specific focus has kind of changed over the course of my life from marine biology for a long time to paleontology to herpetology now, working with reptiles and, and kind of global change more broadly. And then, science communication and science outreach I think has always been part of my interest because I love to share my passion for nature with other people, and so, now it's kind of it's all come together now, working on my PhD and even tying in my interest in film, working with film artists and different kinds of artists as part of the science communication work. So, it's been a lot of fun.Saintsing: All right, I was gonna ask, so as a kid you really liked talking about science?ElShafie: Yeah.Saintsing: So, you're probably just telling everybody non-stop about all the cool scientific things you were learning?ElShafie: Oh, sure. Anybody who wanted or didn't want to know about dolphins and sharks and lizards and whatever I was reading about at the time. Yeah, I love that stuff.Saintsing: But then, you mentioned earlier, part of the reason why you started getting more interested in, at least the, what you wrote the article that you published with the symposium, that was partially to help you understand how to communicate science in some ways.ElShafie: Yeah, absolutely.Saintsing: So, would you say that maybe it's harder to communicate the science that you're actually doing than just to share scientific facts you're learning?ElShafie: Definitely. You've hit the nail on the head. I think it's, it's really fun and easy to just like share cool facts about animals because animals are very cool and there's lots of cool facts that you can share about them just you know in, in conversation, but when you're doing scientific research, especially, you know, long term in-depth scientific research, the specific questions of which might be a little bit more removed from people's everyday experience, it is a lot harder to figure out how to share that in an engaging way with other people you know. When I started my program here, if you asked me what's your research about, I would have jumped immediately into a detailed, jargon-laden explanation of how I study these lizards that lived 45 million years ago, and, and their body size got much bigger as the mean annual paleo temperature got a lot hotter in the Eocene and, and etc. And, you know, when I used to give that explanation to my family members, who are like farmers in rural Maryland, or my family members in Egypt on my dad's side, they would nod politely and, and be excited for me because I was clearly excited about it, but they couldn't relate to it at all because I wasn't connecting it to anything that they could relate to. So, now when people ask me what do you study I just start with, I study how climate change impacts animals over time. That's it.Saintsing: Right.ElShafie: And then, if they're really that interested, then maybe I would get into that I also use fossils, and if they're more interested, then maybe we get to the point of: I study reptiles and some of the details that we discussed earlier. But, it's, you know, it's, you almost have to unlearn a little bit of how you're trained to talk about your science as a graduate student. I think that's why it's really important for science communication training to be part of any graduate training program, no matter what your field is, especially if you're, if you're in a STEM field, if you're training to be some kind of scientist because it's when we write our, you know, technical papers we have to talk about science in a particular way, but even there having some story structure can really help the paper flow, but when you're talking about science with broader audiences, especially non-specialist audiences or even scientists outside of your own field, it really helps if you can start at a more general level where everybody can, can clue in and, and relate to what you're saying and then you get into more detail from there as, as needed. But, you don't even need to go to that level of detail in most cases. People just want the general sense of what you're doing. I think the most important thing to keep in mind is who is your audience, who are you talking to, and what is your goal for that audience, what do you want them to take away from your interaction with them, and that might be something specific like, I want them to understand what's really cool about this method I'm using. It might be more general like I simply want this person to understand that I'm a human being who cares about the same things that they do.Saintsing: Right, we're coming up at the end of our interview. Typically at the end of the interview we just offer our guests a moment to speak on any issue they'd like to speak about, about social issues or about their topic, their research area in science, or really anything you'd like to address to the listeners.ElShafie: Sure. Appreciate it. I would love to say to anybody listening who is not currently in a science graduate degree program but if you're interested in science in any capacity then I hope that you pursue that interest in some form, whether it's pursuing a degree in science or even just learning about whatever scientific field you're interested in, and, and I encourage you to bring your other interests into that as well. I think the, the best scientists I know who are the most creative about how they approach their science are those who are interested in lots of different things, and, and, and vice versa. So, I think combining interests in lots of different fields is actually a really, it's, it's a great way to enrich your work no matter what you do, and, and scientists want to meet you, and scientists want to talk to you no matter what it is you do. We love, we love talking about science, but we also love learning about other things other than science because that just enriches our perspective about how we approach science. So, if you're an artist, if you're an educator, if you're a farmer, if you are whoever you are no matter what you do, please come chat with us because we'd love to meet you, and if you're a scientist listening, I really encourage you to step outside of academia as often as you can, especially if you're a graduate student or postdoc, you know. Don't wait until you finish your degree or until you get your career up and running. It already is running, and I think the more you meet and interact with people outside of science, the better scientist you will be because it will, you learn how other people think and that's really important for science communication, but it also just enriches your perspective and enhances your appreciation for what you do, and it's also a lot of fun, and especially if you have interests outside of science whether it's a hobby or another field or whatever it is, don't wait to dabble in that. Get involved with it. Take a class. Read a book. Join a group. Whatever it is, get involved with that now because being involved in lots of different things and expanding your horizons while you're in grad school is really great for your mental and emotional health, and, and it also just gives you a broader sense of how you can use your scientific training in the world, whether you want to pursue academia or potentially something else.Saintsing: Right, open dialogue with people who don't study the same thing as you, who are coming from different backgrounds, that would be good not just for scientists but for everyone, right?ElShafie: Mm-hmm.Saintsing: Yeah, but yeah especially for scientists. That's a great message, Sara. Thank you so much for being on the show. It was really great.ElShafie: It was a lot of fun talking to you today. Thank you so much for having me.Saintsing: I've been speaking with SaraElShafiefrom the Department of Integrative Biology. We were speaking about her interest in global climate change and how she communicates her science to the public. Tune in and two weeks for the next episode of The Graduates.