The History of Egypt Podcast
Horemheb and Hatti. In the days of King Ay (and Tutankhamun before him) conflicts in Canaan and Syria remained a constant issue. In recent years, scholars have uncovered more information about these events and people. Horemheb, the Overseer of the Overseers of the Troops (aka the General of Generals) seems to have dealt, and fought, with Hittite forces. The records are fragmentary, but the clues are intriguing...Episode details:Date: c.1334 BCE (debated).Kings: Tutankhamun and Ay (debated).Episode logo: Foreigners praising the cartouche of Ay, from a piece of gold foil discovered in the Valley of the Kings. Image edited for clarity.Music: Ancient rendition of "The Eve of the War," adapted by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.Music: "War Song of Horus and Sekhmet," by Jeffrey Goodman www.jeffreygoodmanmusic.com.Additional music interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.Select references:T. Bryce, The Kingdom of the Hittites (2005).H. Güterbock, ‘The Deeds of Suppiluliuma as Told by His Son, Mursili II’ (1956), 41—68, 75—98, 107—30.G. T. Martin, Tutankhamun’s Regent: Scenes and Texts from the Memphite Tomb of Horemheb (2016).J. L. Miller, ‘Amarna Age Chronology and the Identity of Nibxururiya in the Light of a Newly Reconstructed Hittite Text’ (2007), 252—93. Read free on Academia.eduJ. L. Miller, ‘The Rebellion of Ḫatti’s Syrian Vassals and Egypt’s Meddling In Amurru’, Studi micenei ed egeo-anatolici (2008), 533—554. Read free on Academia.eduZ. Simon, ‘Kann Armā mit Haremhab gleichgesetzt werden?’ (2009), 340—348. Read free on Academia.eduAdditional references at www.egyptianhistorypodcast.com.
157: The Road to Kadesh
Keeping up with the Kadeshians. In the past, historians thought the Egyptian government was passive (or even "pacifist") in the days of Akhenaten, Tutankhamun, and Ay. However, newer research has proved this wrong. We now have a fragmentary, but fascinating picture of warfare and diplomacy, taking place through Canaan and Syria. The town of Kadesh, on the Orontes River, is prominent. Once a vassal to pharaoh, the city suffered an attack by Hittite forces. It then changed sides, paying tribute to Suppiluliuma, King of the Land of Hatti. In the later years of Tutankhamun, or the early reign of Ay, the Egyptians responded to Kadesh's treachery...Episode details:Date: c.1334 BCE (debated).Kings: Tutankhamun and Ay (debated).Battle scene of Tutankhamun: learn more in a free lecture by W. Raymond Johnson (YouTube). Battle reliefs discussion begins at 51:29.Episode logo: A statue, presumed to be Ay, in the Staatliche Museum, Berlin. Image upscaled, cropped, and edited.Music: "War Song," by Bettina Joy de Guzman www.bettinajoydeguzman.com. Used with permission.Music: "King Tut's Song," by Jeffrey Goodman www.jeffreygoodmanmusic.com. Used with permission.Sistrum sound effect by Hathor Systrum www.hathorsystrum.com. Used with permission.Additional music interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.For references and images related to this and other episodes, visit www.egyptianhistorypodcast.com.Support the show at www.patreon.com/egyptpodcast, or with a donation.
156: Oh, Ay Just Can't Wait to be King
The servant ascends. Considering his background, it's not surprising that King Ay turned out to be quite "conservative." His early deeds continued the policies of Tutankhamun (a regime in which Ay had actively participated). The new pharaoh completed one of Tutankhamun's temples (the Ḥwt-Neb-kheperu-Ra in Waset/Thebes), and evoked Tutankhamun in his art. Ay also started his own monuments, at Akhmim / Akhmin (Khent-Menu). There, colossal statues and sanctuaries for Min would convey pharaoh's agenda...Date: c. 1334 BCE.King: Kheper-Kheperu-Ra, It-Netjer Ay ("Ra is Supreme of Manifestations, the God's Father Ay").Music: Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/.Music interludes: Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.
155: The Queen's Gambit
A difficult decision. Events in this period are murky. But if Ankhesenamun was the "Daḫamunzu" of Hittite record, then her attempt to find a new husband (of royal blood) had failed. So, she would have to accept a "servant." Whom would she choose?Episode Details:Chapter 2 begins 00:24:10Date: c. 1334 BCE (debated).King: none (hopefully just temporary).Music: Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/.Music: Ancient Lyric http://www.bettinajoydeguzman.com/.Music interludes: Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.Music at 25:10, "Shine for the Show," via Pond5 (licensed).Misc audio clips via YouTube users Sound Effects King and Saraschan Stienwongnusa.
154: Daḫamunzu (tA-Ḥmt-nswt)
He said, she said. Around 1334 BCE (give or take), the King of Hatti received a curious message. While on campaign, King Suppiluliuma got word that Egypt's pharaoh (someone called "Nib-ḫuru-riya") had died. He had no son, and Egypt's ruling lady (daḫamunzu, or tA-ḥmt-nsw, the "King's Great Wife") needed assistance. The Queen sent a message: would Suppiluliuma help her, and Egypt? Strange events were about to unfold...Date: c. 1334 BCE (debated).King: Neb-kheperu-Ra Tut-ankh-Amun (debated) deceasedKing: Suppiluliuma, Great King of the Land of HattiMusic: Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/Music: Michael Levy http://www.ancientlyre.com/Sound interludes: Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_ChaosWebsite: www.egyptianhistorypodcast.com
153f: The Tomb of Tutankhamun (Part 6, Final)
The Annexe and End of Excavation. Howard Carter uncovered the tomb of King Tutankhamun in November 1922. He would continue labouring in the monument until 1927, and the final conservation of objects would finish in 1932. Over these ten years of work, Carter tackled many challenges, some of which proved insurmountable. In the end, his labour, and the story of Tutankhamun's burial, stand as a testament to human effort and long legacies.Episode Chapters:Chapter 15: The Scouring of the Tomb 00:00:15Chapter 16: The End of Excavations 00:31:50Series Conclusion: 00:52:30Episode Links:For the full archive of Harry Burton’s photographs, showing the tomb of Tutankhamun in its original state, see the Griffith Institute website.Date: 1922 CE - 1932 CE.Logo image: A ceremonial shield belonging to the King. Wikimedia.Music by Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/Sound interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_ChaosSee other shows from the Agora Podcast Network.
153e: The Tomb of Tutankhamun (Part 5)
Treasured Heirlooms. East of the Burial Chamber, in Tutankhamun's tomb, the per hedj ("Treasury") contained a smorgasbord of beautiful objects. Some of these were sacred, like the canopic vessels for Tutankhamun's organs. Others were symbolic, connecting the pharaoh with great gods like Osiris. And still others were curious, including some "heirlooms" from earlier rulers and generations...Episode Chapters:Chapter 13: Anubis and the King 00:00:13Chapter 14: The Heirlooms of Akhenaten 00:24:30Episode Links:Music by Keith Zizza www.keithzizza.netSound interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.See other shows from the Agora Podcast Network.
153d: The Tomb of Tutankhamun (Part 4)
Curses and Controversies. From the moment they announced their discovery, Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon were faced with overwhelming attention. How they responded, and how they chose to approach the excavation, would have a major impact on public perception of the tomb. And, when events took a tragic turn, the media were happy to capitalise on the issue...Episode Chapters:Chapter 10: The Choices of Lord Carnarvon 00:05:10.Chapter 11: Journey to the Crossroads 00:25:30Chapter 12: Of Bricks and Lost Portraits 00:48:48Episode Links:The "curse" brick, with text from Book of the Dead, Chapter 151: http://www.griffith.ox.ac.uk/gri/carter/263.htmlMusic Opening: "She Gypped Egypt on the Nile," midi rendition by SheetMusicSinger.com. Used with permission (audio editing: added vinyl crackling sound effects).Music Interlude at 00:24:34: "Vintage Ragtime," purchased from Pond5.com.Music Interlude at 00:48:05: "Tomb Song," by Nora Keyes, public domain via Freemusicarchive.com.Outro music by Ancient Lyric http://www.bettinajoydeguzman.com/.Sound interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_Chaos.See other shows from the Agora Podcast Network.
153c: The Tomb of Tutankhamun (Part 3)
Coffins, Masks, and a Mummy. Within his Burial Chamber, Tutankhamun slept amid gold, glass, wood, and precious stone. His mummy is an extraordinary find, covered with ornaments, amulets, ceremonial clothing, and even weapons. From the famous image of his mummy mask, to a dagger made of "sky rock," the King's body reveals many tantalising stories...Episode Chapters:Eight: In the House of Tutankhamun 00:00:10Nine: The Face of the Pharaoh 00:31:15Epilogue: A Curious Dagger 01:02:35Episode LinksNicholas Reeves' discussions of the Mummy mask, and its possible ownership. Article 1, 2015, and Article 2, 2015.For the full archive of Harry Burton’s photographs, showing the tomb of Tutankhamun in its original state, see the Griffith Institute website.Date: 1922 CE.Logo image: Tutankhamun and the Royal Ka before Osiris. FactumArte.Music by Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/Music by Michael Levy http://www.ancientlyre.com/Music by Ancient Lyric http://www.bettinajoydeguzman.com/Sound interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_ChaosAudio mixing/editing by Vincent Cavanagh.See other shows from the Agora Podcast Network.Episode details:Date: c. 1922 CEKing: Neb-kheperu-Ra Tut-ankh-AmunLogo image:Music by Keith Zizza https://www.keithzizza.net/Music: Michael Levy http://www.ancientlyre.com/Music by Ancient Lyric http://www.bettinajoydeguzman.com/Sound interludes by Luke Chaos https://twitter.com/Luke_ChaosAudio mixing/editing by Vincent CavanaghSee other shows from the Agora Podcast Network